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Golf Learning and Improvement Specialists. Business Reg. No. 47813000K (since 1993). Tel: 8222 1121
Golf lessons are conduct at Executive Golf Course & Driving Range.
Address: Track 7, Mandai Road, Upper Seletar Reservoir, Singapore 779384.


Adult Golfer's Window - The Muscles Use in Golf Technique Performance

The Muscles Use in Golf Technique Performance

As golfers, one of the most critical factors limiting the mastery of the golf swing performance is their body fitness level, and more specifically, the flexibility of the muscles to move the skeletal frame in the body to perform the range of body rotary motions required in a golf swing action. Muscles are attached to bones by tendons and ligaments. Tendons play the role as connectors, and can stretch when the muscles contract. Ligaments protect the joints and prevent over-extension.

A good knowledge for golfers is to know that muscles pull and do not push. In any body movement the small muscles will initiate the corresponding bigger muscles to work in group. A golf swing is a motor skill. The golfer’s brain will picture the body movement swinging with the club to hit the ball. The cerebrum (new brain) sets the body for any motor activities for the intended golf swing action while the cerebellum controls and monitors the timing of the muscles movements through the body’s neurology to activate the muscular system. For example, to raise your forearm, the brain tells the biceps to contract, while the triceps are relaxed. To drop the arm, the biceps relax and the triceps contract. This basic concept is repeated throughout the body to initiate movement.

A golfer needs to practice sufficiently to achieve the swing proficiency for a game in the initial stage of learning the golf swing. In the process, the muscles required will be pulled and strengthened repeatedly during the swing action. The muscle group will also be conditioned for the anaerobic performance for a golfer to the swing club rapidly to hit the ball in a short time duration of less than 2 seconds. In doing so during practices, the muscles and muscle groups will be less tired during a round of golf. One of the main causes of poor swing performance is the natural body reaction to both physical and mental fatigue which will decrease a golfer’s ability to focus and concentrate. Consequently the swing performance will deteriorate regardless of a golfer’s endurance.

A golfer experiencing muscle aches and pains occurring twenty-four to forty-eight hours after practicing and training are the results of using muscles which are not otherwise accustomed to being used to making that particular movement during the golf swing action. When the muscles are used regularly to execute the golf swing the muscles will develop more strength and physical ability with total flexibility.

Muscle “feel” is the term I used to describe a golfer ability to sense the particular muscle of the body and to actually feel their use in a particular golf swing movement. When a golfer is more aware of that particular muscle or muscle group and how they are used in a proper golf swing it will allow better sense to correctly perform the specific movements to master and perfect the golf swing action.

A golfer should consider a few light exercises to activate and strengthen or pull specific muscles or muscle groups for the golf swing in a manner that such muscles will be used and increase the ability of those muscles to perform in the golf swing specific manner. When the muscles are properly conditioned, a more natural and efficient golf swing can be easily accomplished with lesser energy and physical attention during the swing execution. The long term benefits for a golfer will be the capability to maintain the swing timing, rhythm and accurate ball striking ability without the natural decrease of physical ability that would otherwise occur with age. These, together with the healthy mental ability to play will certainly enhance your enjoyment in the game of golf for a life time.

I have identified and targeted the main muscles with brief descriptions of their usages in an efficient golf swing. Each particular movement in a golf swing involves the use and collaboration of more than one muscle group to perform the movement proficiently.

The Major Muscles Use in Golf Technique Performance

The neck muscles are responsible for maintaining the proper head position at address position, as well as during the body rotation throughout the golf swing

The trapezius muscles are responsible for proper angular rotation of the shoulders throughout the golf swing.

For carrying the arms and lifting the golf club throughout the golf swing.

To withstand extreme pulling forces of the golf clubhead during the swing, and creating and maintaining proper swing acceleration and swing speed of the club at impact.

The pectoral muscles are involved in carrying and controlling the arms in front of the body.

To keep the upper arms close to the body and assist the arms to swing the club in the correct swing plane and path throughout the golf swing.

Upper Arms
The deltoids, biceps (front) and triceps (rear) muscles of the upper arms are responsible for controlling and maintaining proper arms and club position throughout the golf swing.

To assist the forearms in pronation and supination, elbow bending, and extending the arms to generating club clubhead speed at impact.

Lower Arms
The extensor and flexsor muscles are responsible for maintaining proper hands and wrists movement throughout the swing.

To control the correct wrists leverage function in maintaining the position of the club in the air throughout the entire golf swing and at impact.

The thenar and hyperthenar muscles are responsible for the gripping tensions on the club by the fingers and palms.

Upper Back
The upper latissimuss doris muscles are involved in rotating the trunk.

To assist the shoulder’s rotation in correct rotary manner, carrying the arms in lifting the golf club throughout the golf swing.

Lower Back
The lower latissimuss doris muscles are involved in the rotating the trunk.

To support and maintain the correct spine angle at the address position and throughout the swing before the clubhead at impact with the ball. The lower back muscles are particular vulnerable to injury.

Abdominal Muscles
The abdominal muscles are responsible for rotating the trunk.

To support the shoulder’s rotation and stablising the vulnerable muscles of the lower back.

The hips are responsible for rotating the trunk when initiating the downswing.

To support the upper body rotation on the backswing and on the downswing, as well as maintaining the proper swing acceleration of the club to impact.

Upper Legs
The hamstrings (rear) and quadriceps (front) muscles of the upper legs are responsible to maintain the bending of the ankle and knee flex at the address position and throughout the swing.

To provide substantial support and balance of the upper body rotation throughout the swing especially on the downswing when the club is swinging with maximum acceleration.

To control and maintain correct hip movements throughout the swing.

Lower Legs
The calf muscles of the lower legs are responsible for the proper foot position at address.

To control and maintain the foot inversion and eversion movement throughout the backswing and follow-through swing.

Philip Ang
Asian Golf Centre
Certified & Licensed USGTF Master Golf Teaching Professional - USA
Certified Professional Teacher and Trainer - University of Cambridge, UK
Singapore Sport Council - NCAP Level 1, 2 & 3
Singapore WDA-WSQ ACTA Certified Trainer & Assessor
Certified Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP™) Practitioner - USA
Certified Professional Clubmaker by GCA (USA)
GCA Winner International Clubmaker of the Year - USA

"When you experience any acute muscle pain in your golf swing performance, it is lightly that you exerted the muscle; please medicial advice" from Philip Ang

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